If you have not been paying attention, more and more of what was considered random behavior is now being explained by math. To satisfy this standard of explanation, the math must be able to accurately forecast behaviors. Several good examples of this evolution in math, or perhaps more precisely in the understanding of social behavior, are seen in Sandy Pentland's new book, "Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread-The Lessons from a New Science". Interesting discussion of social networks, information flows and how to modify behavior. Anyone who appreciates "big data" should read the book. Pentland's proposed policies on privacy and transparency make the book worthwhile even if you do not care about big data. Implications for the nature and role of government are the best partof the book in my opinion.
Another example of math being applied to social organizations is the work of Geoffrey B. West, “Why Cities Keep on Growing, Corporations Always Die, and Life Gets Faster”. West trained as a physicist and late in his career turned to studying the growth pattern of cities. Regardless of location around the world, culture, type of government, etc, cities behave according to certain mathematical rules. Cities also exhibit certain properties that insure they last forever, whereas companies and people have properties which explain a definite lifetime. Maybe we should encourage the return of city states. Maybe Shanghai has already reached that status.
One should not overlook the irony that computers are crunching the numbers to explain more and more of our lives by numbers. The pace at which we approach the world of Ray Kurweil is perhaps accelerating. "How to Create a Mind, the Secret of Human Thought Revealed" by Ray Kurzweil. Fascinating book.